+ Is XactLIFE Digital Twin a data driven technology?

No, XactLIFE system is not a data driven system. The XactLIFE based digital twin technology for gas turbines is strictly a model based system. It uses actual engine usage history coupled with physics based engine modeling, fluid dynamics modeling, non-linear stress-strain analysis and material physics based damage modeling approaches to predict the individual component level fracture critical locations and residual life to provide predictive maintenance solutions and inspection guidelines for a gas turbine.

+ Can XactLIFE system be used to conduct root cause analysis (RCA) of engine component failures?

Yes. The XactLIFE system analyzes the effects of actual engine operating conditions such as rotational speed, time at a given speed at altitude, ambient operating conditions, etc. on the damage accumulation rates in individual engine components using microstructure based damage models. Furthermore, the system automatically computes the influence of individual or combined damage mechanisms on component fracture critical location and life. These features enable speedy computation of the crack nucleation and propagation life under numerous loading and damage mechanisms to effectively identify the root cause of failures.

+ Can XactLIFE quantify the influence of changes in engine operating environment on the durability of engine components?

Yes. The engine operating and ambient conditions during actual usage is an input to the XactLIFE system. The thermodynamic engine model along with CFD and finite element analysis enables the prediction of the metal temperature and stress-strain states over critical parts for each usage condition. Hence, the crack nucleation sites and propagation lives of durability critical components is computed as a function of the actual usage. In addition the risk of missing a crack can be quantified up front using probabilistic life analyses.

+ What is the advantage of using a model based Digital Twin versus a data driven Digital Twin?

A data driven system can only be used to identify an anomaly within the specific compressor or hot gas path sections of a gas turbine. In contrast, a model based digital twin can pinpoint the development of specific damage in an individual part such as a blade, vane and a disc of a specific gas turbine section. In addition, the reliability of a part can be established up-front using engine usage variability, microstructural variability and inspection uncertainty analyses rather than waiting to accumulate the field failure data to provide the traditional FMECA based predictions.

+ Does LPTi provide engineering expert witness services?

Yes. LPTi staff members possess significant experience and expertise in gas turbine structures and materials and our professional engineers also provide expert witness services. LPTi specializes in the life assessment and failure analysis of components and structures that are exposed to static, dynamic or mixed loading conditions at elevated temperatures. LPTi has been in business for since 1998 and possesses unique life prediction algorithms in the areas of creep, fatigue, thermal-mechanical fatigue and fracture mechanics analysis. LPTi has also access to unique world class facilities at the National Research Council of Canada to conduct any experimental work.

+ Does LPTi provide field inspection services?

Yes. LPTi provides field inspection services such as boroscopy, Eddy current Inspection, Ultrasonic Inspection, Liquid Penetrant Inspection to discern the condition of the material and component under inspection. LPTi has access to a highly qualified pool of level I/II/III NDI inspectors who have completed inspections on major projects for Saudi Electric Company (SEC), PDVSA Venezuela, and Iraq.

+ What types of dynamic engine analysis services does LPTi offer?

LPTi provides dynamic engine analysis services to ensure the structural integrity of the rotating assembly. The dynamic response of the engine subsystem such as bladed disc may be simulated. The natural frequency of the rotating components is computed and verified using experimental data to pinpoint the critical revolution speeds for different working conditions. Above the component level, the whole assembly of the bladed disc is constructed to check the model shape, frequencies to pin point possible excitation due to rotational and dynamic working loads. Unbalanced excitation and corresponding stress/vibration responses are analyzed using field observation data for both the individual component and the assembly.

+ Does LPTi offer vibration analysis services?

Yes, LPTi offers customized vibration analysis services. Based on raw and validated vibration data, LPTi utilizes appropriate data analysis techniques to predict the health state at component level. The data analysis steps include varied advanced signal processing, extraction and non-linear trending tools. This enables the correlation of extracted vibratory parameters in time and/or frequency domain to component level damage prediction obtained from the actual usage, geometry and material characteristics of the component. The effects of mode localization and mistuning effect induced by rotating cracked turbo-machinery can be optimized. Strategic spare parts can be reduced on a calculated risk basis, and less time based Preventive Maintenance activities. Just-in-time inventory management despite components are also studied and analyzed for early crack detection with vibration analysis.